Fundamental analysis

Page written by AI. Reviewed internally on January 30, 2024.


Fundamental analysis is a method used to evaluate the intrinsic value of a financial asset, such as stocks, bonds, or currencies, by analysing the underlying factors that affect its value.

What is a fundamental analysis?

It involves studying the fundamental economic, financial, and qualitative factors that can influence the asset’s price over the long term.

Key aspects of fundamental analysis include:

1. Financial statements: Analysing the financial statements of a company, such as the income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statement, to assess its financial health, profitability, and overall performance.

2. Economic indicators: Examining economic indicators and data, such as GDP growth, inflation rates, unemployment figures, and consumer sentiment, to understand the broader economic environment and its potential impact on the asset.

3. Industry analysis: Evaluating the industry or sector in which the asset operates. This involves understanding industry trends, competitive dynamics, and factors that could affect the asset’s performance within its sector.

4. Company performance: Assessing the company’s management team, competitive advantages, market share, growth prospects, and overall business strategy.

5. Valuation methods: Using various valuation methods, such as price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio, price-to-book (P/B) ratio, discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis, and others, to estimate the asset’s fair value.

6. Qualitative factors: Considering qualitative factors like brand reputation, market positioning, regulatory environment, and geopolitical influences that could impact the asset’s value.

Fundamental analysis is often used by long-term investors who aim to identify assets that are undervalued or overvalued based on their intrinsic characteristics. By assessing the fundamental factors, investors seek to make informed decisions about buying, holding, or selling assets. It is important to note that while fundamental analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of an asset’s value, it doesn’t provide insights into short-term price fluctuations, which can be influenced by market sentiment, news events, and other factors.

Example of fundamental analysis

Let’s consider ABC Company, a publicly traded company, and how an investor might use fundamental analysis to assess its stock.

  1. Earnings per share (EPS):
    • The investor looks at the company’s recent financial statements and calculates the earnings per share. If ABC Company’s earnings have been consistently growing over the years, it indicate financial strength.
  2. Price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio:
    • The investor examines the P/E ratio. A lower P/E ratio might suggest that the stock is undervalued compared to its earnings potential.
  3. Revenue and profit margins:
    • Analysing the company’s revenue growth and profit margins provides insights into its operational efficiency and overall financial health.
  4. Dividend yield:
    • If the investor is interested in income, they might assess the company’s dividend yield. A higher dividend yield could be attractive for income-oriented investors.
  5. Competitive position and industry trends:
    • The investor evaluates the company’s competitive position within its industry and considers broader industry trends. A company with a strong competitive position and positive industry outlook may have better growth prospects.
  6. Management and corporate governance:
    • Assessing the quality of the company’s management, corporate governance practices, and strategic decisions is key. A well-managed company is more likely to succeed in the long term.
  7. Macroeconomic factors:
    • Considering macroeconomic factors such as interest rates, inflation, and economic indicators can also impact the company’s performance.

By conducting fundamental analysis, an investor aims to make informed investment decisions based on the underlying financial and economic factors affecting a company’s value.

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