Page written by AI. Reviewed internally on April 12, 2024.


Repayment refers to the process of returning borrowed funds or fulfilling a financial obligation according to the terms.

What is a repayment?

A repayment is a key aspect of financial transactions and involves the repayment of both principal and interest associated with loans or credit arrangements. Repayments are fundamental to maintaining financial integrity, establishing creditworthiness, and fostering trust between borrowers and lenders. 

Types of repayments:

  1. Principal repayment: Refers to the repayment of the original amount borrowed or the outstanding balance of a loan.
  2. Interest repayment: Involves the payment of interest charges accrued on the borrowed amount.

Repayment terms are set in loan agreements and include details such as:

  1. Repayment schedule: Specifies the timing and frequency of repayments (e.g., monthly, quarterly).
  2. Interest rate: Determines the cost of borrowing and the amount of interest payable.
  3. Loan term: The duration over which the loan is to be repaid.

Amortisation is a common method of loan repayment where borrowers make regular payments that include both principal and interest. Over time, a larger portion of the payment goes toward reducing the principal.

Loan repayments are reflected in a company’s financial statements. The cash flow statement, in particular, shows the movement of cash related to loan repayments.

Some loans may allow for early repayment, enabling borrowers to pay off the loan before the scheduled maturity date. However, this may involve prepayment penalties or fees.

Consistent and timely repayments positively impact a company’s credit rating, demonstrating reliability and creditworthiness.

Failure to make timely repayments can lead to default. Consequences may include penalties, higher interest rates, damage to creditworthiness, and potential legal actions by lenders.

Example of a repayment

Company ABC has borrowed €100,000 from a bank to finance the expansion of its manufacturing facility. The loan agreement specifies that the loan must be repaid in monthly instalments over a five-year period, with an annual interest rate of 6%.

Each month, Company ABC makes a repayment to the bank, consisting of both principal and interest. For example, in the first month, the repayment might be €2,000, with €1,000 going towards reducing the principal amount borrowed and €1,000 covering the interest accrued.

As Company ABC continues to make regular repayments over the five-year term, the outstanding balance of the loan gradually decreases until it is fully repaid. By the end of the loan term, Company ABC has repaid the entire €100,000 principal amount borrowed, plus interest, fulfilling its repayment obligation to the bank.

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