The 4 p’s

Page written by AI. Reviewed internally on February 16, 2024.


The 4 p’s in business, also known as the marketing mix, are a set of fundamental elements that form the foundation of a company’s marketing strategy.

What are the 4 p’s?

These four elements represent key decisions that marketers need to make in order to successfully promote a product or service. 

  1. Product: This refers to the tangible or intangible offerings that a company provides to meet a specific need or want of its target market. Key considerations include product differentiation, positioning in the market, and ensuring that the product aligns with the needs and preferences of the target audience.
  2. Price: This relates to the monetary value assigned to the product or service. Pricing strategies can vary widely. Factors influencing pricing decisions include production costs, competitor pricing, and overall pricing strategy of the company.
  3. Place: Place, also known as distribution, pertains to the methods and channels used to make the product or service available to the customer. The goal is to ensure that the product is accessible to the target market when and where they want it.
  4. Promotion: Promotion involves the activities and methods used to communicate the value of the product or service to the target market. The aim is to create awareness, generate interest, and ultimately persuade customers to make a purchase. Effective promotion also involves considerations of messaging and branding.

The 4 p’s framework provides a structured approach to help businesses address key aspects of their marketing efforts, ensuring that they effectively deliver value to their target audience.

Additionally, in recent years, there have been extensions to the original 4 p’s model, with additional p’s being proposed, such as:

  1. People: Focusing on the human element, including employees, customers, and other stakeholders, as a crucial part of a company’s success.
  2. Process: Addressing the systems and procedures that govern how a company operates and delivers its products or services.
  3. Physical evidence: Pertains to the tangible cues or physical manifestations that customers use to evaluate a service, such as the appearance of a store, the packaging of a product, or the website design.

These additional P’s reflect the evolving nature of business and the increasing recognition of the importance of factors like customer experience, operational efficiency, and employee engagement in a company’s overall success.

Example of the 4 p’s

Here’s a short example illustrating each of the 4 P’s:

  1. Product: XYZ Electronics introduces a new smartphone model with advanced features. The product development team ensures that the smartphone meets the needs and preferences of the target market.
  2. Price: XYZ Electronics determines the pricing strategy for its new smartphone. After conducting market research and analysis, XYZ Electronics sets the price of the new smartphone at £499, positioning it as a premium product in the market.
  3. Place: XYZ Electronics selects distribution channels to make the new smartphone available to customers. The company sells the smartphone through its own online store, as well as through retail partners such as electronics stores and mobile carriers.
  4. Promotion: XYZ Electronics launches a marketing campaign to promote the new smartphone and create awareness among target customers. The company uses a mix of advertising channels, including digital ads, social media marketing, and television commercials, to showcase the smartphone’s features and benefits.

In this example, XYZ Electronics effectively applies the 4 P’s of the marketing mix to successfully introduce and market its new smartphone to target customers, driving sales and revenue for the company.

Ready to grow your business?

Clever finance tips and the latest news

delivered to your inbox, every week

Join the 70,000+ businesses just like yours getting the Swoop newsletter.

Free. No spam. Opt out whenever you like.

We work with world class partners to help us support businesses with finance

Looks like you're in . Go to our site to find relevant products for your country. Go to Swoop No, stay on this page