The law of supply is a fundamental principle in economics that describes the relationship between the price of a good or service and the quantity that producers are willing and able to sell in a given period. It states that, assuming all other factors remain constant, when the price of a good or service rises, the quantity that producers are willing and able to supply also increases. Conversely, when the price falls, the quantity supplied decreases.
Producers aim to maximise their profits. When the price of a good rises, producers have an incentive to supply more of it to the market because they can earn higher revenues. Conversely, when the price falls, producers are less inclined to supply large quantities because they would earn lower revenues.
The relationship described by the law of supply is typically illustrated on a supply curve. The supply curve slopes upward from left to right, indicating that as price increases, the quantity supplied increases, and as price decreases, the quantity supplied decreases.
Changes in factors other than price can lead to shifts in the entire supply curve. For instance, changes in input costs, technology, or government regulations can alter the quantity supplied at all price levels. These are called shifts in supply.
The law of supply is a universal economic principle applicable in markets around the world. It is a crucial concept for understanding producer behaviour and market dynamics in both domestic and international contexts.