Net operating income (NOI)

Page written by AI. Reviewed internally on June 26, 2024.


Net operating income (NOI) is a key financial metric used in real estate investment and property management.

What is net operating income?

Net operating income measures the profitability and operating efficiency of a real estate asset, excluding certain non-operating expenses like financing costs and income taxes. NOI is a critical indicator for investors, lenders, and property owners as it provides a clear picture of a property’s income-generating potential.

The formula for calculating net operating income is:

NOI = total revenue − operating expenses

Lenders may assess a property’s NOI to determine its ability to generate sufficient income to cover debt service. Investors and property owners use NOI to compare the financial performance of different properties or to track the performance of a single property over time.

A consistent or growing NOI over time can indicate a stable and potentially lower-risk investment. Conversely, a declining NOI may signal operational challenges.

Factors influencing net operating income:

  1. Rental rates: The level of rental income directly impacts the total revenue and, consequently, the NOI. Higher rental rates lead to increased revenue.
  2. Occupancy rates: A higher occupancy rate means more units are rented, leading to higher total revenue and NOI.
  3. Operating efficiency: Effective property management and efficient operations can lead to lower operating expenses, which in turn increases NOI.
  4. Property improvements and upgrades: Investments in property improvements can lead to increased rental income and higher property value, positively affecting NOI.
  5. Market conditions: External factors like changes in supply and demand for rental properties in the market can impact rental rates and, consequently, NOI.

NOI does not account for financing costs, such as mortgage interest, which are essential to consider when assessing the overall financial performance of a property. Furthermore, NIO Ignores income taxes: NOI does not account for income taxes, which can have a significant impact on a property’s net profitability.

Example of net operating income

Let’s consider a real estate company called “ABC Properties” that owns and operates a commercial building. In a particular year, ABC Properties generates total rental income from tenants of £500,000. However, the company incurs various operating expenses related to the property totalling £200,000.

Now we can calculate the net operating income using the formula from above:

Net operating income = £500,000 – £200,000 = £300,000

In this example, the net operating income for ABC Properties is £300,000. This represents the profit generated by the property from its core operations, excluding non-operating expenses such as interest, depreciation, and taxes.

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