Working capital

Page written by AI. Reviewed internally on February 16, 2024.


Working capital refers to the capital that a company uses in its day-to-day trading operations. It is the difference between a company’s current assets and current liabilities.

What is working capital?

Here are some key points about working capital:

1. Current assets:
– These are assets that are expected to be converted into cash or used up within one year. Examples include cash, accounts receivable, and inventory.

2. Current liabilities:
– These are obligations or debts that are expected to be settled within one year. Examples include accounts payable, short-term debt, and accrued expenses.

3. Calculation:
– Working capital is calculated using the formula: working capital = current Assets – current Liabilities.

4. Positive vs. negative working capital:
– If a company’s current assets exceed its current liabilities, it has positive working capital. This indicates that the company has enough liquid assets to cover its short-term obligations. Conversely, if current liabilities exceed current assets, the company has negative working capital, which may signal potential financial difficulties.

5. Importance:
– Sufficient working capital is crucial for a company’s day-to-day operations. It enables the company to meet its short-term obligations, pay bills, purchase inventory, and cover operating expenses.

6. Liquidity:
– Working capital is a measure of a company’s liquidity and its ability to cover short-term financial needs. A healthy level of working capital indicates that a company is well-positioned to handle its immediate financial commitments.

7. Cash flow management:
– Effective management of working capital involves balancing the timing of cash inflows and outflows. This helps ensure that the company has enough cash on hand to meet its obligations.

8. Optimisation:
– Companies aim to strike a balance with their working capital. Holding too much working capital can be inefficient, as it may indicate that funds are not being deployed optimally. Conversely, too little working capital can lead to liquidity problems.

9. Industry variation:
– Different industries may have varying working capital requirements. For example, industries with longer production cycles or longer payment terms from customers may require higher levels of working capital.

10. Seasonal factors:
– Some businesses may experience seasonal fluctuations in working capital needs. For instance, retailers may need to increase inventory levels ahead of the holiday seasons.

11. Management strategies:
– Effective management of working capital involves strategies such as managing accounts receivable, negotiating favourable payment terms with suppliers, and maintaining an efficient inventory turnover.

12. Risk management:
– Inadequate working capital can lead to financial distress and may hinder a company’s ability to take advantage of growth opportunities. Therefore, managing working capital is a key aspect of risk management for businesses.

Overall, working capital is a fundamental financial metric that reflects a company’s short-term financial health and its ability to meet its immediate financial obligations. It is a critical aspect of financial management for businesses of all sizes and across various industries.

Example of working capital

Let’s say ABC’s current assets include cash, accounts receivable, and inventory, totalling £500,000. Meanwhile, its current liabilities, such as accounts payable and short-term loans, amount to £300,000.

Using the formula for working capital:

Working Capital = £

ABC Corporation’s working capital is £200,000. This indicates that the company has £200,000 available to cover its short-term obligations and fund its day-to-day operations.

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