Gearing, in financial terms, refers to the proportion of a company’s capital that is financed by debt compared to equity. It is a measure of financial leverage and indicates the extent to which a company relies on borrowed funds for its operations and expansion. Gearing is expressed as a ratio and is used by investors, analysts, and lenders to assess a company’s financial risk and stability.
The formula for gearing ratio is:
Gearing ratio = (total debt / total capital) x 100%
A high gearing ratio indicates a significant reliance on debt for financing, which can lead to higher financial risk due to interest payments and potential difficulties in meeting debt obligations. On the other hand, a low gearing ratio suggests a lower reliance on debt, which can lead to lower financial risk, but may also indicate underutilisation of financial leverage.
The optimal level of gearing depends on various factors, including the industry, business model, and risk tolerance of the company. Some industries naturally have higher levels of gearing due to their capital-intensive nature.